Diabetes Mellitus is a condition where the body maintains a high level of glucose in the blood. When the body is not capable of producing enough insulin or the cells in the body can not respond to that insulin, the result is high blood sugar. Although there is no known cure for diabetes, it can be controlled by a number of factors that include following a proper diet, exercise, medications, and insulin support.
The two main types of chronic diabetes include type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes is characterized by the body’s inability to produce insulin through the cells in the pancreas. This results in a buildup of sugar in the bloodstream as the sugar is unable to be transported into the cells. It is thought to be related to a combination of environmental and genetic factors. It can affect both children and adults but is more predominantly found in the majority of diabetes cases among children.
Type 2 diabetes is typically developed when the cells do not respond to the insulin that is secreted from the pancreas. The pancreas is not able to produce enough insulin to overcome the resistance. As with type 1 diabetes, it is also believed that genetic or environmental factors play a role in the development. In addition, there is a link between type 2 diabetes and obesity; however, not all individuals with type 2 diabetes are overweight.
Eating healthy is a major part of managing and treating both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Although there is no strict diabetes diet, counting carbohydrates and managing sugar intake is crucial to the control of blood sugar levels. Exercise is also an essential part of diabetes management. Physical activity helps the body increase the level of sensitivity to insulin so the body actually requires less insulin to transport the sugar to the cells.
Oral medication is a common treatment among type 2 diabetics. Medications can help in several different ways including the stimulation of the pancreas to create and release more insulin as others may hinder the release of glucose from the liver into the blood. Type 1 diabetes typically requires insulin therapy. Insulin treatment involves injection by using a syringe with a fine needle or by the use of an injection pen. Doctors may prescribe a mixture of insulin types such as long-acting and fast-acting insulin to stabilize blood sugar levels.